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Research Base to Support the NAGC-CEC Teacher Preparation Standards in Gifted Education

NAGC and the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) understood at the outset that gathering the research base on best practices in gifted and talented education would not only inform the workgroup developing the new standards, but would also be an essential component of both the CEC Knowledge and Skills Committee and NCATE review processes. 

Because the revised standards were first reviewed by the CEC Knowledge and Skills Committee, the workgroup looked to CEC's Professional Standards and Practices Standing Committee for guidance.  The Workgroup decided to accompany each standard with at least three citations in each of three categories:

Literature/Theory-BasedResearch. This is knowledge or skills based on theories or philosophical reasoning such as position papers, policy analysis and descriptive reviews of the literature.

Research Based.  This is information and skills found in peer-reviewed studies.

Practice Based. Practice-Based knowledge and skills are those that come from a small number of studies or programs that are viewed as so widely effective that there is an implicit professional assumption that the practice is effective.  This knowledge could come, as well, from classroom teacher practice that has some degree of action research.

The workgroup then made a few additional decisions regarding the types of references to include and the annotation length:

  1. Works published in the last ten years were cited with the exception of seminal works and research for Standard 1, which requires the inclusion of the historical research literature.
  2. References were made to major texts on gifted education, including individual chapters, where appropriate.
  3. References were used if they appeared suitable for a course in gifted education or as a source for the Praxis or a state licensure test.
  4. No doctoral dissertations, professional position papers, or presentations at professional meetings were used.
  5. No references were used more than twice among the subsections of a single standard.
  6. References must address the key aspects of each knowledge and skill standard.
  7. The annotation was limited to 50-100 words. Research studies included research questions, sample, instrumentation, method, and findings.
  8. Annotations were cited if obtained from the ERIC database, a journal, or the author.

The research references and annotations are included here for your information.  The references are representative, not exhaustive, and are not intended to endorse a particular theory, model, test, method, strategy or material.  They will, however, aid your understanding of the underpinnings of the standard. Click here for the Research Base.


Please note that minor changes were made to the standards after the research base was developed.  As a result, there are slight differences between the wording of the standards and the knowledge and skills included in the research document and the final standards.  Please refer to the Teacher Preparation Standards in Gifted Education as the definitive document.


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